Friday, March 4, 2016

Yanomami Religion And Beliefs

Religion of the Yanomami

Retrieved form:, on 2/3/16


Retrieved from "" on 2/3/16
The Yanomami believe that cosmos consist of four different layers. The upper layer is empty, but it used to be occupied by ancient beings who are now in the lower layers. The second layer, which we can see as the sky, is the home of spirits of dead men and women. It resembles earth, except for having better hunting, the food is tastier etc. In other terms this is the heaven for the Yanomami. The third layer (one of the lowest layer) is the earth as we know it. The lowest layer is the so called underworld or hell is where the Amahi-teri live, who are ancient spirits that bring harm upon humans.

After Death

Retrieved from:
 on 4/3/16
The Yanomami believe that when they die they will go to hedu (heaven) which is the layer right above earth. The Yanomami believe that they have to face a spirit which asks them if they have been good or bad, this spirit decides weather they go to heaven (hedu) or hell (hei). The Yanomami don't worry about this too much, as they believe that this spirit is easy to trick, therefore they don't feel that their actions in life will be mirrored to their fate after death. When someone dies, the Yanomami burn the corpse very quickly, while the women and the children flee the village as to not be polluted by the smoke. The men then collect and pulverise the bones and pour the ash into a set of gourds that are stored in the village. After about one year they hold a mortuary ceremony (reahu) Close relatives, co-villagers and allies consume the ash, which is mixed into a trough of planait soup.

By: George Hollo
"Yanomam√∂ - Religion and Expressive Culture." Religion and Expressive Culture. Countries and Their Cultures, n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2016.

Wednesday, March 2, 2016

Language and Clothing

The Yanomami Language:
The Yanomami language consists of 5 languages which are similar to each other Yanam Sanuma Ninam Yanam. People from different tribes cannot understand each other sometimes. To understand each other they use basic vowels a,e,i,o,u. In Yanomami language if a vowel is nasalized, which means that they say it with he air escaping their nose, then the words after it are also nasalized. This is a way of understanding each other.
Sometimes they use basic gestures to understand each other. The Yanomami have different ways to communicate, when they smell something bad they put one finger in their nose, when someone hears something bad, he will close his eyes, cover his ears, then turn around and shake his head, then spit on the ground to show that he hates what he is hearing. The reason their language is very interesting is because their is always a way to understand each other by doing gestures or using vowels, and that’s something that we lack nowadays to understand each others.

Yanomami Clothing: 
Yanomami clothing depends on their ranking. If you are higher ranked then you would be wearing less clothes, but more decoration and if you are lower ranked you would wear normal Yanomami clothing, like weaved clothes. Little kids tend to not wear anything, and the Yanomami do not wear any shoes. Yanomami paint their bodies with different colors. They use many red dyes seeds, and other colors that comes from fruits or seeds. Yanonami girls like to pierce their noses, ears and lips with wooden sticks. They also like to wear armbands made out of leaves, and necklaces made out of seeds. The boys usually wear white hawk feathers on their head.
Image result for yanomami clothingImage result for yanomami feather hat

"Yanomamo Lanuage - Cultural Anthropology @ KSU." Yanomamo Lanuage - Cultural Anthropology
@ KSU. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2016.

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Yanomami Food

The Yanomami are the only somewhat secluded tribe in South America. They live in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela in rainforests and mountains.

Yanomami Food

The Yanomami are know as fishers, hunters and horticulturists. Men hunt for game like peccary, tapir, deer and monkey, although hunting counts for only 10% of their food, a hunter never eats the meat that he has killed, instead he shares it out between family and friends, and in return he is given meat by another hunter  men also do the hard, heavy work of clearing areas of the forest so they have a space for their gardens. The women plant plantains and cassava in their gardens this is their main crop, the women also cook the food. 

Yanomami woman making food, retrieved from 

In the gardens they grow around 60 crops which accounts for 80% of their food, women also collect nuts, shellfish and insect larvae, wild honey is cherished and the Yanomami collect 15 different kinds.Both the men and women fish, and they use timb√≥ or fish poison in communal fishing trips. In groups, men, women and children pound up bundles of vine which they then float on the water.  The liquid from the plants stuns the fish, they then rise up to the water's surface and are scooped up in baskets. They use nine different kinds of vine for fish poisoning. The Yanomami know a lot about plants, they use around 500 plants for food, medicine, house building and other artefacts.

Stiff tough dough that can be eaten with a thin sauce mad from spices and vegetables,
retrieved from

The Yanomami use fish poison to catch fish because it's easier. "The liquid from the plants stuns the fish, they then rise up to the waters surface and are scooped up in baskets."  It is easier to use the fish poison because this way they are already dead and they are floating on the water which means you don't have to try and see them at the bottom of the water and catch them whilst they are alive. This means it is easier to catch the fish using fish poison. 

"Yanomami." The Yanomami. Survival International, 1 Jan. 2011. Web. 04 Mar. 2016.

By Esme Mason

Friday, February 5, 2016

Areas Controlled by the Portuguese Empire

Countries Portugal controlled:
The Portuguese Empire has controlled many different areas throughout the world.
On the map above we can see that Portugal controlled a lot of different areas. These territories are:
South America
  • Brazil (1500-1822)
  • Angola (1575-1975)
  • Mozambique (1498-1975)
  • Guinea Bissau (1973-1974)
  • Cape Verde (1460-1975)
  • Madeira (1415-1542)
  • Some parts of India (Goa, Cochin..)
By Esme Mason

Portugal has colonized 6 countries which are now independent. The Madeira was the first country colonized by Portugal.
In this picture you can see which countries where colonized by Portugal in South America and who they were colonized by. As you can see Brazil was colonized by Portugal and the rest of the countries were mainly colonized by the Spanish.

By Noah Bekel

On the map above we can see the zoomed in version of brazil to the specific area where the Yanomami tribe is located and the areas around it. This can give us an idea of where the native people to this land could have been moved and also help us understand how much of the tribe was affected by the Portuguese colonization.

By George Hollo